Tobacco, Alcohol, and Cancer in Low and High Income Countries.
High blood pressure (BP), the leading modifiable risk factor for mortality, accounts for 19% of deaths worldwide or 10.5 million deaths per year. 1,2 Nine percent of deaths in low-income countries, 21% in middle-income countries (MICs), and 18% in high-income countries (HICs) are attributable to high BP. 2 The number of people living with hypertension has nearly doubled over the past 40 years.
These countries are going to have some of the characteristics of high income nations and some of the characteristics of low income nations. For these nations, their population is about split between working in urban environments and working in rural environments. And the quality of living is not horrible, but it's considerably less than the high income nations the high income countries. And.
Improving Health Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Case Book will find an engaged audience among healthcare providers and administrators implementing and managing improvement projects at Ministries of Health in low- to middle-income countries. The book also aims to be a useful reference for government donor agencies, their implementing partners, and other high-level decision makers.
High blood cholesterol has increased in human populations in lower- and middle-income countries and declined in high-income countries since 1980, according to a paper published in Nature this week. The study, which examines data from more than 100 million individuals worldwide, reveals that changes in diet, behaviour and use of medication are driving one of the most important causes of heart.
Importance Depression is associated with incidence of and premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in high-income countries, but it is not known whether this is true in low- and middle-income countries and in urban areas, where most people with depression now live. Objective To identify any associations between depressive symptoms and incident CVD and all-cause mortality.
As low- and middle-income countries urbanize and industrialize, they must also cope with pollution emitted from diverse sources. Strong and consistent evidence associates exposure to air pollution and lead with increased risk of cardiovascular disease occurrence and death. Further, increasing evidence, mostly from high-income countries, indicates that exposure to noise and to both high and low.
In middle-income countries, the overall male prevalence of tobacco smoking is 34% and the overall female prevalence is 5%. 4 In low-income countries, the prevalence of tobacco smoking is approximately 21% and 3% for men and women, respectively. 4. Download: Download full-size image; Figure 2.